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RACE Race Is one of the most complex concepts In Sociology. It Is a social construct that artificially divides people into distinct groups based on characteristics such as physical appearance (particularly color), ancestral heritage, history, economic and political needs of a society at a given period of time. Science theories of race arose in the late 18th and early 19th century The father of modern racism, Count Joseph Arthur De Gobbling proposed the existence of three races: white (Caucasian), Black (Negroes) and Yellow (Mongolia).

According to his theory, blacks are least capable whereas white race possesses superior characteristics. In the year following World War 2, ‘race science’ has been discredited since they are no clear cut ‘races’ In Biology. RACISM The concept of race Is fundamental to the existence of racism-prejudice based on socially significant physical distinction (skin color or race).

A racist Is someone who believes that some individuals are superior or inferior to others due to basis reclaimed differences. More precisely, racism is a system of advantage based on race ND is supported by institutional structures, policies, actions of individuals, cultural norms, values and practices that creates and sustains advantages for the dominant group while systematically subordinating members of targeted racial groups.

In European countries, racism is visible as open or implicit hostility including: Routine negative stereotypes in the media and In the conversations and ‘common sense’ of the populations dominant group * Discrimination In employment and recruitment practices, and In workplace cultures and customs ; Language and hysterical attack on minorities in public * Minorities’ holy places are attacked and desecration of cemeteries. Bureaucratic delay and Inertia In responding to minorities requests for cultural sensitivity In education and healthcare; in planning applications for social and cult places; in language policies; and in regeneration and neighborhood renewal programs in areas where minorities live Racism can be subdivided Into Individual racism and Institutional racism, Institutional racism is a system of procedures and patterns in all walks of life. For example, there are education, housing, businesses, employment, professional associations, religion and media.

According to this view, institutions all promote policies that favor certain groups while discriminating against others. The effect of institutional racism is to perpetuate and maintain the power, influence and well- being of one group over another. For individual racism, it is the beliefs, attitudes and actions of an individual that support racism. Individual racism can occur at both conscious and unconscious levels. For example, telling a racist Joke, using a racial epithet Is occurrence of Individual racism. Individual racism can be further subdivided into active racism and passive racism. Active racism – Actions which 1 OFF oppression of those in targeted racial groups. They support the continued subjugation of members of targeted groups and protection of the rights’ of members of the advantaged group. * Passive racism – Conscious and unconscious beliefs, attitudes and actions that support the system of racism, racial prejudice, racial dominance and contribute to the maintenance of racism, without openly advocating violence and discrimination. Besides that, there are racism such as Internalized Racism and Horizontal Racism.

Internalized Racism happens when people from targeted racial groups believe, act on, or enforce the dominant system of beliefs about themselves and members of their own racial group. For example, they may use creams to lighten their skin, believing that the most competent administrators or leaders are white. They feel that they cannot be as intelligent as white people, believing that racism is the result of people of color not being able to raise themselves up ‘by their own bootstraps’. On the other hand, Horizontal racism occurs when people from targeted racial groups help the dominant system of racial discrimination and oppression.

It can happen between members of the same racial group (an Asian person telling another wearing a sari to ‘dress like an American’; a Latin telling another Latin to stop speaking Spanish) or between members of different, targeted racial groups (Latino believing stereotypes about Native Americans). Racism in Different Sociologists’ Views “Culturally sanctioned beliefs, which, regardless of intentions involved, defend the advantages whites have because of the subordinated position of racial minorities,” * David Hellman (1993) “… Highly organized system of ‘race’-based group privilege that operates at every level of society and is held together by a sophisticated ideology of color/’race’ supremacy. Racist systems include, but cannot be reduced to, racial bigotry,” * Noel Cozenage and Darlene Olivarez Madders “United States can be characterized as a “total racist society” because racism is used to organize every social institution…. ” * Sociologist and former American Sociological Association president Joe Fagin

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